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Par Brian Hayden. 2018
The Power of Ritual in Prehistory is the first book in nearly a century to deal with traditional secret societies…from a comparative perspective and the first from an archaeological viewpoint Providing a clear definition as well as the material signatures of ethnographic secret societies Brian Hayden demonstrates how they worked what motivated their organizers and what tactics they used to obtain what they wanted He shows that far from working for the welfare of their communities traditional secret societies emerged as predatory organizations operated for the benefit of their own members Moreover and contrary to the prevailing ideas that prehistoric rituals were used to integrate communities Hayden demonstrates how traditional secret societies created divisiveness and inequalities They were one of the key tools for increasing political control leading to chiefdoms states and world religions Hayden s conclusions will be eye-opening not only for archaeologists but also for anthropologists political scientists and scholars of religion
Par Kenneth Macgowan, Joseph A. Hester. 1962
Since the time of Columbus, when the peoples of the New World were discovered by Europeans, there has been a…continuous interest in knowing something about their origin and early history. This has been almost completely shrouded in the primitive past, unmentioned in any written records, and thus largely a matter of speculation of one kind or another. Only very slowly have the means of investigating this history come into being.
Par Michael J. Harrower. 2016
This book offers a new interpretation of the spatial-political-environmental dynamics of water and irrigation in long-term histories of arid regions.…It compares ancient Southwest Arabia (3500 BC–AD 600) with the American West (2000 BC–AD 1950) in global context to illustrate similarities and differences among environmental, cultural, political, and religious dynamics of water. It combines archaeological exploration and field studies of farming in Yemen with social theory and spatial technologies, including satellite imagery, Global Positioning System (GPS), and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping. In both ancient Yemen and the American West, agricultural production focused not where rain-fed agriculture was possible, but in hyper-arid areas where massive state-constructed irrigation schemes politically and ideologically validated state sovereignty. While shaped by profound differences and contingencies, ancient Yemen and the American West are mutually informative in clarifying human geographies of water that are important to understandings of America, Arabia, and contemporary conflicts between civilizations deemed East and West.
Par D. Mandal. 2003
Par Peter N. Peregrine. 2017
This updated edition of Archaeological Research introduces the basic methods of archaeological research, including data collection, analysis, interpretation, as well…as a consideration of the state of archaeology today. New to the Second Edition is updated information on geographic information systems and remote sensing strategies, and a greatly expanded discussion of practices in cultural resource management archaeology. This popular, concise textbook explores various research methods, analytical techniques, legal and ethical issues facing archaeologists; includes discussions of the archaeological process and record, sampling and research design, survey and excavation methods and strategies, recordkeeping, analysis, archaeological dating, presenting results, and research opportunities; is an excellent text for undergraduate students in basic archaeology courses, field methods courses, and field schools
Remote Sensing Technology in Forensic Investigations provides a basic understanding of concepts involved in the use of basic geophysical surveying,…metal detectors, magnetics, electromagnetics and ground penetrating radar in police and forensic investigations. Such technology can be vital in locating clandestine, buried evidence which is often concealed in the subsurface underground. Crime scene investigation and evidence collection entails locating, identifying, collecting, and cataloging. Such physical evidence searches are time consuming and can often lead to searches that require excavations, which in itself that can destroy evidence. The noninvasive, nondestructive methods outlined in this book can both reduce the time spent on searches and excavations, thereby increasing the probability of locating vital physical evidence. As such, the application of remote sensing methods has gained increased acceptance, and seen increased usage, by investigators. Remote sensing methods are based on making indirect measurements of the surface of and within the earth. The resulting measurement information can be presented in either an imaging format— such as in aerial photography—or a non-imaging format, such as in a profile or contour map. These measurements can be interpreted to identify and characterize contrasts due to differences in physical and natural properties of the materials being studied. This can include physical evidence, remains, and clandestine graves. This book will serve as a handy introductory primer to the technology, techniques, and application of such techniques. Throughout, numerous references and additional resources are provided for those investigators, forensic anthropology, and police professionals who want further information on the technology’s usage for investigative purposes.
Par De Giorgi, Andrea U.. 2016
From late fourth century BC Seleucid enclave to capital of the Roman east, Antioch on the Orontes was one of…the greatest cities of antiquity and served as a hinge between east and west. This book draws on a century of archaeological fieldwork to offer a new narrative of Antioch's origins and growth, as well as its resilience, civic pride, and economic opportunism. Situating the urban nucleus in the context of the rural landscape, this book integrates hitherto divorced cultural basins, including the Amuq Valley and the Massif Calcaire. It also brings into focus the archaeological data, thus proposing a concrete interpretative framework that, grounded in the monuments of Antioch, enables the reader to move beyond text-based reconstructions of the city's history. Finally, it considers the interaction between the environment and the people of the city who shaped this region and forged a distinct identity within the broader Greco-Roman world.
Par Michael Scott. 2014
The oracle and sanctuary of the Greek god Apollo at Delphi were known as the "omphalos"--the "center" or "navel"--of the…ancient world for more than 1000 years. Individuals, city leaders, and kings came from all over the Mediterranean and beyond to consult Delphi's oracular priestess; to set up monuments to the gods in gold, ivory, bronze, marble, and stone; and to take part in athletic and musical competitions. This book provides the first comprehensive narrative history of this extraordinary sanctuary and city, from its founding to its modern rediscovery, to show more clearly than ever before why Delphi was one of the most important places in the ancient world for so long.In this richly illustrated account, Michael Scott covers the whole history and nature of Delphi, from the literary and archaeological evidence surrounding the site, to its rise as a center of worship with a wide variety of religious practices, to the constant appeal of the oracle despite her cryptic prophecies. He describes how Delphi became a contested sacred site for Greeks and Romans and a storehouse for the treasures of rival city-states and foreign kings. He also examines the eventual decline of the site and how its meaning and importance have continued to be reshaped right up to the present. Finally, for the modern visitor to Delphi, he includes a brief guide that highlights key things to see and little-known treasures.A unique window into the center of the ancient world, Delphi will appeal to general readers, tourists, students, and specialists.
Par Jan Van Dussen. 2011
Since its appearance in 1981 History as a Science has been welcomed as a coherent and comprehensive review and analysis…of the many aspects of Collingwood's philosophy of history, the development of his views, and their reception. The book was the first to pay extensive attention to Collingwood's unpublished manuscripts, and to his work as an archaeologist and historian. With the publication of this volume Jan van der Dussen, opened up a new angle in Collingwood studies. The republication of this volume meets an increasing demand to make the book available for future Collingwood scholars, and people interested in Collingwood's philosophy. Apart from verbal changes to improve readability and a new pagination, the manuscript is the same as the original.
The 2002 revelation that George Washington kept slaves in his executive mansion at Philadelphia's Independence National Historical Park in the…1790s prompted an eight-year controversy about the role of slavery in America's commemorative landscape. When the President's House installation opened in 2010, it became the first federal property to feature a slave memorial. In Upon the Ruins of Liberty, Roger Aden offers a compelling account that explores the development of this important historic site and how history, space, and public memory intersected with contemporary racial politics. Aden constructs this engrossing tale by drawing on archival material and interviews with principal figures in the controversy-including historian Ed Lawler, site activist Michael Coard, and site designer Emanuel Kelly. Upon the Ruins of Liberty chronicles the politically-charged efforts to create a fitting tribute to the place where George Washington (and later, John Adams) shaped the presidency while denying freedom to the nine enslaved Africans in his household. From design to execution, the plans prompted advocates to embrace stories informed by race, and address difficulties that included how to handle the results of the site excavation. As such, this landmark project raised concerns and provided lessons about the role of public memory and how places are made to shape the nation's identity.
Par Alexis T. Boutin, Benjamin W. Porter. 2014
Remembering the Dead in the Ancient Near East is among the first comprehensive treatments to present the diverse ways in…which ancient Near Eastern civilizations memorialized and honored their dead, using mortuary rituals, human skeletal remains, and embodied identities as a window into the memory work of past societies.In six case studies teams of researchers with different skillsets-osteological analysis, faunal analysis, culture history and the analysis of written texts, and artifact analysis-integrate mortuary analysis with bioarchaeological techniques. Drawing upon different kinds of data, including human remains, ceramics, jewelry, spatial analysis, and faunal remains found in burial sites from across the region's societies, the authors paint a robust and complex picture of death in the ancient Near East.Demonstrating the still underexplored potential of bioarchaeological analysis in ancient societies, Remembering the Dead in the Ancient Near East serves as a model for using multiple lines of evidence to reconstruct commemoration practices. It will be of great interest to students and scholars of ancient Near Eastern and Egyptian societies, the archaeology of death and burial, bioarchaeology, and human skeletal biology.
Par Barbara Mertz. 2007
World-renowned Egyptologist Barbara Mertz explores the reality behind the bestselling fiction she writes (as Elizabeth Peters) and casts a dazzling…light on a remarkable civilization.Afascinating chronicle of an extraordinary people--from the first Stone Age settlements through the reign of Cleopatra and the Roman invasions--Temples, Tombs, and Hieroglyphs brings ancient Egypt to life as never before. Lavishly illustrated with pictures, maps, and photographs, it offers tantalizing glimpses into Egyptian society; amazing stories of the pharaohs and the rise and fall of great dynasties; a sampling of culture, religion, and folklore; stories of explorers, scientists, and scoundrels who sought to unravel or exploit the ageless mysteries; and new insights into the architectural wonders that were raised along the banks of the Nile.
Par Robert Browning, Nadine Gordimer, Christopher Hitchens, Charalamabos Bouras. 2008
The most powerful case yet made for the return of the Parthenon MarblesThe Parthenon Marbles (formerly known as the Elgin…Marbles), designed and executed by Pheidias to adorn the Parthenon, are perhaps the greatest of all classical sculptures. In 1801, Lord Elgin, then ambassador to the Turkish government, had chunks of the frieze sawn off and shipped to England, where they were subsequently seized by Parliament and sold to the British Museum to help pay off his debts.This scandal, exacerbated by the inept handling of the sculptures by their self-appointed guardians, remains unresolved to this day. In his fierce, eloquent account of a shameful piece of British imperial history, Christopher Hitchens makes the moral, artistic, legal and political case for re-unifying the Parthenon frieze in Athens.The opening of the New Acropolis Museum emphatically trumps the British Museum's long-standing (if always questionable) objection that there is nowhere in Athens to house the Parthenon Marbles. With contributions by Nadine Gordimer and Professor Charalambos Bouras, The Parthenon Marbles will surely end all arguments about where these great treasures belong, and help bring a two-centuries-old disgrace to a just conclusion.From the Trade Paperback edition.
Par Peter S. Wells. 2012
The peoples who inhabited Europe during the two millennia before the Roman conquests had established urban centers, large-scale production of…goods such as pottery and iron tools, a money economy, and elaborate rituals and ceremonies. Yet as Peter Wells argues here, the visual world of these late prehistoric communities was profoundly different from those of ancient Rome's literate civilization and today's industrialized societies. Drawing on startling new research in neuroscience and cognitive psychology, Wells reconstructs how the peoples of pre-Roman Europe saw the world and their place in it. He sheds new light on how they communicated their thoughts, feelings, and visual perceptions through the everyday tools they shaped, the pottery and metal ornaments they decorated, and the arrangements of objects they made in their ritual places--and how these forms and patterns in turn shaped their experience. How Ancient Europeans Saw the World offers a completely new approach to the study of Bronze Age and Iron Age Europe, and represents a major challenge to existing views about prehistoric cultures. The book demonstrates why we cannot interpret the structures that Europe's pre-Roman inhabitants built in the landscape, the ways they arranged their settlements and burial sites, or the complex patterning of their art on the basis of what these things look like to us. Rather, we must view these objects and visual patterns as they were meant to be seen by the ancient peoples who fashioned them.
Par Elizabeth J. Reitz, Elizabeth S. Wing. 1999
Par Edward L. Shaughnessy. 2014
In recent years, three ancient manuscripts relating to the Yi jing ( I Ching), or Classic of Changes, have been…dixcovered. The earliest -- the Shanghai Museum Zhou Yi -- dates to about 300 B.C.E. and shows evidence of the text's original circulation. The Gui cang, or Returning to Be Treasured, reflects another ancient Chinese divination tradition based on hexagrams similar to those of the Yi jing. In 1993, two manuscripts found in a third-century B.C.E. tomb at Wangjiatai contained almost exact parallels to the Gui cang's early quotations, supplying new information on the performance of early Chinese divination. Finally, the Fuyang Zhou Yi was excavated from the tomb of Xia Hou Zao, lord of Ruyin, who died in 165 B.C.E. Each line of this classic is followed by one or more generic prognostications similar to phrases found in the Yi jing, indicating exciting new ways in which the text was produced and used in the interpretation of divinations.This book details the discovery and significance of the Shanghai Museum Zhou Yi, the Wangjiatai Gui cang, and the Fuyang Zhou Yi, including full translations of the texts and additional evidence that constructs a new narrative of the Yi jing's writing and transmission in the first millennium B.C.E.